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Open Wordnet Documentation (en)

Overview

What is wordnet?

Unlike a standard dictionary, which takes the word as its elementary building block, a wordnet is an online lexical reference system which is organized by concepts.

The basic building block of a wordnet is Synonym set (Synset), a group of words that can all refer to the same concept, such as shut and close or car and automobile. Words and synsets are linked by means of conceptual-semantic relations in wordnet.

The core conceptual-semantic relations among synsets are called Constitutive relations, such as:

  • Super-subordinate relation (hypernym and hyponym)
  • Part-whole relation (meronym and holonym)
  • Semantic contract and similar relation (antonym and synonym)

Synsets are connected into a net framework to form the structure of wordnet, you can refer to this document for the details of Constitutive and other types of relations.

Currently, Princeton Wordnet of English is the most complete and accurate wordnet, and is commonly used as a reference for other wordnets. You can also visit Princeton Wordnet project homepage to learn more of this wordnet.

Open Multilingual Wordnet (OMW) is a collection of wordnets in a variety of languages, all linked through the Collaborative Interlingual Index (CILI), the goal is to make it easy to use wordnets across multiple languages, you can browse and search for cross-lingual matches in OMW.

What is Global Wordnet Association?

The Global WordNet Association (GWA) is a free, public and non-commercial organization that provides a platform for discussing, sharing and connecting semantic lexicons (wordnets) for all languages in the world. Our goal is to make compatible, linked, open lexical resources useful for both humans and computers.

Table of Contents

Relations

Hyponym (hyponym)back to top

"a word that is more specific than a given word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse hypernym
example dog has hyponym animal

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is a type of concept A.

Examples

Tests

Hyponymy-relation between nouns (EWN test 9)

yes a A/an X is a/an Y with certain properties
. . It is a X and therefore also a Y
. . If it is a X then it must be a Y
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.
Conditions:
  • both X and Y are singular nouns or plural nouns.

Hyperonymy/hyponymy between verb synsets (EWN test 11)

yes a to X is to Y + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
no b to Y is to X + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
Conditions:
  • X is a verb in the infinitive form
  • Y is a verb in the infinitive form
  • there is at least one specifying AdvP, NP or PP that applies to the Y-phrase.

Comments

This is the fundamental relation, generally used for nouns and verbs. In plWordNet it is also extended to adjectives and adverbs.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="hyponym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name hyponym
Princeton WordNet Pointer ~
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_hyponym
PlWordNet Relation Name hiponimia
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hypo
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69570

Hypernym (hypernym)back to top

"a word that is more general than a given word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse hyponym
example animal is a hypernym of dog

Definition

A hypernym of something is its superordinate term: if X is a hypernym of Y, then all Y are X.

Examples

  • meat hypernym beef
  • edible fruit hypernym pear
  • wordbook hypernym dictionary

Tests

Hyperonymy/hyponymy between verb synsets ([EWN] test 11, p23)

yes a to X is to Y + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
no b to Y is to X + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
Conditions:
  • X is a verb in the infinitive form
  • Y is a verb in the infinitive form
  • there is at least one specifying modifier (AdvP, NP or PP) that applies to the Y-phrase
[EWN]Piek Vossen (ed.) (1999) Euro Wordnet General Documentation University of Amsterdam

Comments

This is the fundamental relation, generally used for nouns and verbs. In the original Princeton WordNet the name 'troponym' was used for this relation when relating to verbs. In plWordNet it is also extended to adjectives and adverbs.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="hypernym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer @
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_hyperonym
PlWordNet Relation Name hiperonimia
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hype
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69569

Instance Hyponym (instance_hyponym)back to top

"an occurrence of something"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse instance_hypernym
example city has instance hyponym manchester

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A (instance_hyponym) is a type of concept B (instance_hypernym), and where A is an individual entity. A will be a terminal node in the hierarchy. Instances are expressed by proper nouns.

An instance hyponym can also be referred to as a type

Examples

Tests

Yes A is one of the Bs
No B is one of the As

Condition: A is a proper noun (or named entity), B is a common noun.

Comments

Hyponymy is a relation between classes of entities. Individual entities can also be said to belong to some class. Although we do not find many instances in a lexical database, the relation is useful for users that want to add particular instances and do not want to consult a separate database. To distinguish it from class hyponymy the relation is dubbed has_instance.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="instance_hyponym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Instance Hyponym
Princeton WordNet Pointer ~i
Euro WordNet Relation Name instance_hyponym
PlWordNet Relation Name typ
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hasi
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i75102

Instance Hypernym (instance_hypernym)back to top

"the type of an instance"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse instance_hyponym
example manchester has instance hypernym city

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A (instance_hyponym) is a type of concept B (instance_hypernym), and where A is an individual entity. A will be a terminal node in the hierarchy. Instances are expressed by proper nouns.

An instance hypernym can also be referred to as a type

Examples

Tests

Yes A is one of the Bs
No B is one of the As

Condition: A is a proper noun (or named entity), B is a common noun.

Comments

Sometimes modelled as hyponomy/hypernymy relations.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="instance_hypernym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Instance Hypernym
Princeton WordNet Pointer @i
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_instance
PlWordNet Relation Name typ
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hypes

Antonym (antonym)back to top

"An opposite and inherently incompatible word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse antonym
example smart has antonym stupid

Definition

Two words are antonyms if their meanings are opposite in some way such as:

  1. The two words show binary opposition: superior vs inferior (simple)
  2. The two words are near the opposite ends of a spectrum: hot vs cold (gradable)
  3. The two words express change or movement in opposite directions: buy vs sell (converse)

Antonymy can link any two members of any part-of-speech — verbs (e.g. dress vs. undress), adverbs (e.g. naturally vs. unnaturally), adjectives (e.g. superior vs. inferior) and nouns (e.g. catalyst vs. anti-catalyst), but should only ever link concepts with the same part-of-speech.

Antonymy is not transitive: If A is an antonym of B and B an antonym of C, then A is not necessarily and antonym of A. Consider domesticnationalinternational: it does not follow that domesticinternational, or sisterbrothersister does not imply sistersister.

Examples

Tests

Antonym-relation between nouns (EWN 16)

yes a A and B are both a kind of C but A is the opposite of B
. b the converse of (a)
Conditions:
  • A and B are singular or plural nouns
  • C is a hyperonym of both A and C and within a reasonable, competitive denotational range.

Antonym-relation between verb (EWN 17)

yes a If something/someone/it As then something/someone/it does not B
. b If something/someone/it Bs then something/someone/it does not A)
Conditions:
  • A is a synset variant in the third person singular form
  • B is a synset variant in the third person singular form
  • A and B are members of co-hyponym synsets
  • there is a hyperonym of A which is opposite to a hyperonym of B
  • the situation referred to by A has an addressee and the addressee is the protagonist of the situation referred to by B

Antonym-relation between verbs and adjectives (or adverbs) EWN 20

yes a If something/someone/it As then something/someone/it is not B
. b If something/someone/it is B then something/someone/it does not A
Conditions:
  • A is a verb in the third person singular form
  • B is an adjective
  • A and Y are (XPOS) co-hyponyms

Comments

It is primarily a relation between senses, but sense level antonymy implies a looser synset level relation, which we automatically add to make it avaiable for wordnets that do not yet have sense level links.

plWordnet distinguishes between 'conversion' which is the same relationship form different points of vie, like wife and husband and normal antonymy, (plwordnet p27), proper and complementary antonymy.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="antonym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="antonym"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name antonym
Princeton WordNet Pointer !
Euro WordNet Relation Name antonym
PlWordNet Relation Name antonim
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module antonym
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69547

Equal Synonym (eq_synonym)back to top

"X and Y are equivalent concepts but their nature requires that they remain separate (e.g. Exemplifies)"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse eq_synonym
example people has equal synonym folks

Definition

A relation between two concepts where A and B are equivalent concepts but their nature requires that they remain separate.

Equality is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-A is equal to Concept-B, and Concept-B is equal to Concept-A.

It denotes a special kind full synonimity that allows separation of synonym lemmas in two different synsets. It can occur with any type of part-of-speech.

At the moment, we're currently making use of this in order to isolate chengyu (成语), a traditional four-character Chinese idiom.

Examples

  • 一模一样 (70100056-a) EQUALS identical (02068946-a) identical
  • (02068946-a) EQUALS 一模一样 (70100056-a)
  • people has equal-synonym folks
  • cop has equal-synonym policeman
  • fiddle has equal-synonym violin
  • begin has equal-synonym start

Tests

Equal Synonym-relation between nouns (EWN 1)

yes a if it is (a/an) A then it is also (a/an) B
. b if it is (a/an) B then it is also (a/an) A
Conditions:
  • A and B are singular or plural nouns

Equal Synonym-relation between verbs (EWN 2)

yes a If something/someone/it As then something/someone/it Bs
. b If something/someone/it Bs then something/someone/it As
Conditions:
  • A is a verb in the third person singular form
  • B is a verb in the third person singular form
  • there are no specifying PPs that apply to the A-phrase or the B-phrase

Comments

In principle all semantically equivalent words should belong to the same synsets (where they can be differentiated by labels on the appropriate usage).

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="eq_synonym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name eq_synonym
PlWordNet Relation Name synonim
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69607

Similar (similar)back to top

"(of words) expressing closely related meanings"
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse similar
example

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A and concept B are closely related in meaning but are not in the same synset. Similarity is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-A is similar to Concept-B, and Concept-B is similar to Concept-A.

This link was originally used to relate adjectives, but we have unconstrained this use, and we're making use of this link to relate all parts-of-speech.

Similarity can be understood as weak synonymy, opposed to the full synonymy that all lemmas in a concept must share. As adjectives are not structured hierarchically (hyponymy/hypernymy) like verbs or nouns, the similarity link helps showing relations between them.

Examples

Tests

Similar-relation between nouns (EWN 3)

yes a if it is a/an A then it is also a kind of B but you usually do not call Cn Bs
. b if it is a/an B then it is also a kind of A but you usually do not call Cm As
Conditions:
  • Cn are hyponyms of A, Cm are hypnyms of B.

Comments

This relation coerces PWN Similar to relation for adjectives, Verb Group relation for verbs and EWN NEAR_SYNONYM for nouns and verbs. In plWN Similarity relation for adjectives to nouns is a unilateral sense relation which is why it is not given in the mappings below.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="similar"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="similar"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Similar to and Verb Group
Princeton WordNet Pointer *!
Euro WordNet Relation Name near_synonym
PlWordNet Relation Name podobny
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module sim
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i13187

Meronym (meronym)back to top

"Y makes up a part of X"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse holonym
example hand has part-meronym finger

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A makes up a part of concept B.

Examples

Tests

Meronymy-relation between nouns (EWN test 21)

yes a A/an A makes up a part of A/an B
. . A/an Y has A/an Xs
. . A is a meronym of "B" if As are parts of B(s)
no b the converse of the (a) relations.

Conditions: - A and B are concrete nouns and are interpreted generically.

Comments

This is an unspecified relation that covers all the relations below. This can be computed automatically, it shouldn't be a special relation.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="meronym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name meronym
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_meronym
PlWordNet Relation Name meronimia
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module mero
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69575

Holonym (holonym)back to top

"X makes up a part of Y"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse meronym
example finger has part-holonym hand

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A makes up a part of concept B.

Examples

Tests

Holonymy-relation between nouns

yes a A is a holonym of B if Bs are parts of As
. . A is a holonym of B if Bs are members of As
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.

Comments

This is an unspecified relation that covers all the relations below. This can be computed automatically, it shouldn't be a special relation.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holonym"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer #
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holonym
PlWordNet Relation Name holonimia
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module holo
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69567

Location Meronym (mero_location)back to top

"X is a place located in Y"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse holo_location
example city has mero_location centre

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A is a place located in concept B.

Examples

Tests

Location meronymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 26)

yes a a/an/the A is a place located in a/an/the B
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • A is a concrete noun
  • B is a concrete noun

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_location"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_location
PlWordNet Relation Name miejsce
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module mero

Location Holonym (holo_location)back to top

"Y is a place located in X"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse mero_location
example centre has holo_location city

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is a place located in concept A.

Examples

Tests

Location meronymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 26)

yes a a/an/the B is a place located in a/an/the A
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • B is a concrete noun
  • A is a concrete noun

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_location"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_location
PlWordNet Relation Name miejsce
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module holo

Member Meronym (mero_member)back to top

"Concept A is a member of Concept B"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse holo_member
example player has member-meronym team

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A is a member/ element of concept B. Meronym and Holonym Membership is a paired relation that denotes group formation and membership. Is different from hyponym as it does not relates a sub-kind of a concept. It links groups to members — Many instances of Concept-A form Concept-B; and Concept-B is composed of many members of Concept-A.

Examples

Tests

Member meronymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 22)

yes a a/an A is a member/element of (a/an/the) B
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • A is a single object-denoting noun
  • B is a multiform noun (either a group-noun, a collective-noun or as a lexicalized plural denoting multiple objects)
  • preferably humans, animals, plants or vehicles or closed sets such as the number system, or the alphabet.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_member"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name member meronym
Princeton WordNet Pointer %m
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_member
PlWordNet Relation Name element kolekcji
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module mmem

Member Holonym (holo_member)back to top

"Concept B is a member of Concept A"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse mero_member
example team has member-holonym player

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is a member/ element of concept A. Meronym and Holonym Membership is a paired relation that denotes group formation and membership. Is different from hyponym as it does not relates a sub-kind of a concept. It links groups to members — Concept-B is composed of many members of Concept-A; and many instances of Concept-A form Concept-B.

Examples

Tests

Member holonymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 22)

yes a a/an B is a member/element of (a/an/the) A
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • B is a multiform noun (either a group-noun, a collective-noun or as a lexicalized plural denoting multiple objects)
  • A is a single object-denoting noun
  • preferably humans, animals, plants or vehicles or closed sets such as the number system, or the alphabet.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_member"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name member holonym
Princeton WordNet Pointer #m
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_member
PlWordNet Relation Name element kolekcji
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hmem

Part Meronym (mero_part)back to top

"concept A is a component of concept B"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse holo_part
example car has part-meronym wheel

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A is a component of concept B. Meronym and Holonym Part is a paired relation that denotes proper parts (separable, in principle), which preserve a belonging relation even if the physical link is broken — Concept-A can be separated into Concept-B”; and Concept-B is a part of some Concept-A.

This relation is also frequently used to denote geographical inclusiveness relations.

Examples

Tests

Meronymy-relation between nouns (EWN test 24)

yes a a/an A is a component of a/an B
. b a/an B is a whole/system/complex/network/arrangement/construction of parts/components among which a/an A

Condition:

  • A and B are concrete nouns denoting objects, there must be several As

Comments

This relation is also frequently used by PWN to denote geographical inclusiveness relations.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_part"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name part meronym
Princeton WordNet Pointer %p
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_part
PlWordNet Relation Name część
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module mprt

Part Holonym (holo_part)back to top

"Concept B is the whole where Concept A is a part"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse mero_part
example wheel has part-holonym car

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is the whole of the different component of concept A. Meronym and Holonym Part is a paired relation that denotes proper parts (separable, in principle), which preserve a belonging relation even if the physical link is broken — Concept-A can be separated into Concept-B”; and Concept-B is a part of some Concept-A.

This relation is also frequently used to denote geographical inclusiveness relations.

Examples

Tests

Holonymy-relation between nouns (EWN test 24)

yes a a/an B is a whole/system/complex/network/arrangement/construction of parts/components among which a/an A
. b a/an A is a component of a/an B

Condition:

  • B and A are concrete nouns denoting objects, B typically includes a larger entity

Comments

The has_holo-part relation typically relates components to their wholes, namely: something which is either topologically or temporally included in a larger entity and which as well bears some kind of autonomy (non-arbitrary boundaries) and a definite function with respect to the whole.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_part"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name part holonym
Princeton WordNet Pointer #p
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_part
PlWordNet Relation Name część
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hprt

Portion Meronym (mero_portion)back to top

"X is an amount/piece/portion of Y"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse holo_portion
example drop has mero-portion liquid

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A is an amount/piece/portion of concept B.

Examples

Tests

Portion meronymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 26)

yes a (a/an) A is an (amount/piece/portion) of B
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • A and B are substance denoting nouns

Comments

usually portions (as concepts) do not receive a separate lexical item but are realized by sense extension (for instance, there is no lexical item equivalent to “portion of cake”);

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_portion"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name portion meronym
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_portion
PlWordNet Relation Name porcja
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module mprt

Portion Holonym (holo_portion)back to top

"Y is an amount/piece/portion of X"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse mero_portion
example liquid has holo-portion drop

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is an amount/piece/portion of concept A

Examples

Tests

Portion holonymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 26)

yes a (a/an) B is the whole amount/piece of A
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • B and A are substance denoting nouns

Comments

The whole always pre-exist the portion.Sometimes portions are sufficiently common in a particular language to become lexicalized. These lexical items will be linked to their wholes by means of a has_holo_portion

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_portion"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_portion
PlWordNet Relation Name porcja
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hprt

Substance Meronym (mero_substance)back to top

"Concept A is made of concept B."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse holo_substance
example stick has substance-meronym wood

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A is made of concept B. Meronym and Holonym Substance is a paired relation that denotes a higher bound between part and whole. Separating/removing the substance part, will change the whole — Concept-A is made of Concept-B; and Concept-B is a substance of Concept-A”.

Examples

Tests

Substance meronymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 25)

yes a a/an A is made of B
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • A is a concrete object
  • B is a concrete substance

Comments

There are two basic ways of viewing entities in the world, namely either as an individuated thing or as the stuff from which they are made of. This way, for instance a book can be alternatively named “a book” or “paper”. The relation between things and the stuff which compose them is called MADE_OF.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_substance"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name substance meronym
Princeton WordNet Pointer %s
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_madeof
PlWordNet Relation Name materiał
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module msub

Substance Holonym (holo_substance)back to top

"Concept-B is a substance of Concept-A"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse mero_substance
example wood has substance-holonym stick

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is made of concept A. Meronym and Holonym Substance is a paired relation that denotes a higher bound between part and whole. Separating/removing the substance part, will change the whole — Concept-A is made of Concept-Y; and Concept-B is a substance of Concept-A”.

Examples

Tests

Substance holonymy -relation between nouns (EWN test 25)

yes a a/an B is substance of A
no b the converse of (a).

Conditions:

  • B is a concrete substance
  • A is a concrete object

Comments

Complex holonyms can also contain substances but in that case the MADE_OF relation is used.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_substance"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name substance holonym
Princeton WordNet Pointer #s
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_madeof
PlWordNet Relation Name materiał
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hsub

Other (other)back to top

"Any relation not otherwise specified"
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–synset
  • sense–sense
example doctor other hospital

Definition

This is used for semantic relation types not currently supported by the OMW DTD. The exact relation type can be given with dc:type:

<SynsetRelation relType="other" dc:type="emotion" target="example-en-1234-n"/>

Examples

Tests

yes a A has some strong relation to B
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.

Comments

A FUZZYNYM relation holds between words with the same part-of-speech, XPOS_FUZZYNYM holds across part-of-speech.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="other"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="other"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name fuzzynym
Euro WordNet Relation Name fuzzynym
PlWordNet Relation Name fuzzynimia
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i11342

See also (also)back to top

"a word having a loose or fuzzy semantic relation to another word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse also
example time see also moment

Definition

‘See Also’ is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-X relates to Concept-Y, and Concept-Y relates to Concept-X.

It denotes a relation of related meaning with another concept (going beyond synonymy and similarity).

This link was originally used to relate adjectives, but we have unconstrained this use, and we're making use of this link to relate all parts-of-speech.

Examples

Tests

yes a A has some strong relation to B
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.

Comments

Also known as fuzzynym

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="also"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="also"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Also see
Princeton WordNet Pointer ^
Euro WordNet Relation Name see also
PlWordNet Relation Name dystrybutywność
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module also
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i18418

State Of (state_of)back to top

"Y is qualified by X"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse be_in_state
example poor state_of have-not

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is qualified by concept A.

Examples

Tests

State Of - relation between noun (EWN 44)

yes a B is the state that applies to A
Conditions:
  • B is an adjective/adverb.
  • A is a noun.

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units. FCB: isn't this the same as attribute (but split into two directions)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="state_of"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name attribute
Princeton WordNet Pointer =
Euro WordNet Relation Name state_of
PlWordNet Relation Name stan|cecha
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i35578

Be In State (be_in_state)back to top

"X is qualified by Y"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse state_of
example have-not be in state poor

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A is qualified by concept B.

A is qualified by B.

Examples

Tests

Be In State - relation between adjective/adverb (EWN 44)

yes a a/an/the A is the one/that to whom/which the state B applies
Conditions:
  • A is a noun.
  • B is an adjective/adverb.

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="be_in_state"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name be_in_state
PlWordNet Relation Name nosiciel_stanu|cechy

Causes (causes)back to top

"Concept A is an entity that produces an effect or is responsible for events or results of Concept B."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse is_caused_by
example kill causes die

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B comes into existence as a result of concept A. Entailment is a relation that links two verbs, and it is currently unilateral — Verb-A causes Verb-B, without a reciprocal or tracing link. Causation presupposes/requires that some Verb-B will, inevitably, take place during or after Verb-A (e.g. if Verb-A occurs, then Verb-B will also occur).

While not exclusive to these types of verbs, many verbs that have both a transitive and an intransitive form will frequently be submitted to this relation.

Examples

Tests

Causes - relation (EWN 36)

yes a (To/A/an) A causes (to/a/an) B to take place
. . (To/A/an) A has (to/a/an) B as a consequence
. . (To/A/an) A leads to (to/a/an) B
no b the converse of (a)
Conditions:
  • A is a verb in the infinitive form or A is a noun in the singular
  • B is a verb in the infinitive form or B is a noun in the singular

Causes - relation between verbs and adjectives (or adverbs) (EWN 37)

yes a A causes to be B
. . A has being B as a consequence
. . A leads to be(ing) B
no b the converse of (a)

Conditions: - A is a verb in the infinitive form - B is and adjective

Comments

EUWN's definition of CAUSES is broader than that of PWN. It seems possible to just absorb PWN's links.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="causes"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name cause
Princeton WordNet Pointer >
Euro WordNet Relation Name causes
PlWordNet Relation Name cause
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module caus
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i35561

Is Caused By (is_caused_by)back to top

"X comes about because of Y"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse causes
example die is caused by kill

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A comes into existence as a result of concept B.

Examples

Tests

Is Caused By - relation (EWN 36)

yes a (To/A/an) B takes place because of A
. . (To/A/an) B is the consequence A
. . (To/A/an) B is the result of A
no b the converse of (a)
Conditions:
  • A is a verb in the infinitive form or A is a noun in the singular
  • B is a verb in the infinitive form or B is a noun in the singular

Is Caused By - relation between verbs and adjectives (or adverbs) (EWN 37)

yes a B is caused by A
. . B is the consequence of A
. . B is the result of A
no b the converse of (a)

Conditions:

  • A is a verb in the infinitive form
  • B is and adjective

Comments

The 'is caused by' relation was missing from PWN before.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_caused_by"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name is_caused_by
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module caus

Subevent (subevent)back to top

"Y takes place during or as part of X, and whenever Y takes place, X takes place"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse is_subevent_of
example sleep has subevent snore

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B takes place during or as part of concept A, and whenever concept B takes place, concept A takes place.

Examples

Tests

Subevent - relation between verbs/nouns (a) (EWN 41)

yes a B takes place during or as a part of A, and whenever B takes place, A takes place
no b the converse of (a)

Conditions:

  • A is a verb in the gerundive form
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form

Subevent - relation between verbs/nouns (b) (EWN 42)

yes a A consists of B and other events or processes
no b the converse of (a)

Conditions:

  • B is a verb in the gerundive form
  • A is a verb in the gerundive form buying consists of paying and other events or processes

Comments

The SUBEVENT relation is very useful for many closely related verbs and appeals more directly to human-intuitions (parallel to part-whole relation of concrete entities).

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="subevent"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer \*
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_subevent
PlWordNet Relation Name holonimia sytuacji towarzyszącej
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta

Is Subevent Of (is_subevent_of)back to top

"X takes place during or as part of Y, and whenever X takes place, Y takes place"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse subevent
example snore is subevent of sleep

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A takes place during or as part of concept B, and whenever concept A takes place, concept B takes place.

Examples

Tests

Is Subevent Of - relation between verbs/nouns (a) (EWN 41)

yes a A takes place during or as a part of B, and whenever A takes place, B takes place
no b the converse of (a)

Conditions:

  • A is a verb in the gerundive form
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form

Is Subevent Of - relation between verbs/nouns (b) (EWN 42)

yes a A consists of B and other events or processes
no b the converse of (a)

Conditions:

  • B is a verb in the gerundive form
  • A is a verb in the gerundive form buying consists of paying and other events or processes

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_subevent_of"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer *
Euro WordNet Relation Name is_subevent_of
PlWordNet Relation Name meronimia sytuacji towarzyszącej
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta

Manner Of (manner_of)back to top

"X qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by Y takes place"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse in_manner
example noisily manner of slurp

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept A qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by concept B takes place.

Examples

Tests

Manner Of - relation between verbs/adverb (EWN 43)

yes a a manner of B which qualifies A

Conditions:

  • A and B are verbs
  • B is the hyperonym of A
  • C is an adjective/adverb

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="manner_of"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name manner_of
PlWordNet Relation Name sposób
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i62791

In Manner (in_manner)back to top

"Y qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by X takes place"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse manner_of
example slurp in manner noisily

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by concept A takes place.

Examples

Tests

In Manner - relation between verbs/adverb (EWN 43)

yes a to A is to B in a C manner/way.

Conditions:

  • A and B are verbs
  • B is the hyperonym of A
  • C is an adjective/adverb

Comments

In EuroWordNet, we decided not to differentiate between troponymy and hyponymy but to use the IN_MANNER and MANNER_OF relation in addition to normal hyponymy to make the manner component explicit (if it is significant in the meaning of the verb):

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="in_manner"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name in_manner
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta

Attribute (attribute)back to top

"an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse attribute
example fertile has attributes fecundity

Definition

A relation between nominal and adjectival concepts where the concept A is an attribute of concept B. ‘Attributes’ is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-A attributes to Concept-B, and Concept-B attributes to Concept-A.

It denotes a relation between a noun and its adjectival attributes, and vice-versa — for this reason it should only link adjectives to nouns and vice-versa.

Examples

Tests

Attribute-relation between nouns and adjectives (EWN 14)

yes a A is an attribute of B
. . B is an attribute of A
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.

Conditions: - A is a noun in the singular - B is an adjective - there is at least one specifying adverb, NP or PP that applies to the A- phrase or the B-phrase - preferably there is a no morphological link between the noun and the adjective

Comments

In plWN Value_of_the_attribute is a unilateral relation from adjectives to nouns.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="attribute"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name attribute
Princeton WordNet Pointer =
Euro WordNet Relation Name XPOS_Hyponymy
PlWordNet Relation Name Attribute
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module attr
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i35577

Restricts (restricts)back to top

"A relation between an adjectival X (quantifier/determiner) and a nominal (pronominal) Y"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse restricted_by
example Contribute an example

Definition

A relation between an adjectival concept X (quantifier/determiner) and a nominal (pronominal) concept Y.

Contribute more examples

Contribute test

Comments

This would work for features like 'medial' or 'proximal' in pronouns, or 'every' in everybody, or 'male' for male personal pronouns, but not masculine agreeement in gendered languages. This relation will include some things that are now marked as domain usage. (to be corrected soon'ish)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="restricts"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i22888

Restricted By (restricted_by)back to top

"A relation between nominal (pronominal) Y and an adjectival X (quantifier/determiner)"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse restricts
example Contribute an example

Definition

A relation between nominal (pronominal) concept Y and an adjectival concept X (quantifier/determiner).

Examples

  • this-a (77000061-a) QUANTIFIES [qant] this-n (77000061-n)
  • this-n (77000061-n) QUANTIFIER: [hasq] this-a (77000061-a)

Contribute test

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="restricted_by"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Classifies (classifies)back to top

"A concept A used when counting concept B"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse classified_by
example head classifies cattle

Definition

A concept A used when counting concept B.

English does not really use this relationship, but it is common in many languages, such as Chinese, Japanese or Indonesian. A classifier is a word (or often a bound morpheme) which accompanies a noun in certain grammatical contexts, typically individuation, and generally reflects some kind of conceptual classification of nouns, based principally on features of their referents. Thus a language might have one classifier for nouns representing persons, another for nouns representing flat objects, another for nouns denoting periods of time, and so on. The assignment of classifier to noun may also be to some degree unpredictable, with certain nouns taking certain classifiers by historically established convention.

Note that the in a classifier language a classifier does not introduce a new referent, so we treat it as as non-referential.

Examples

  • head classifies cattle
  • rasher classifies bacon
  • ekor classifiers kucil (Indonesian)
  • 匹 classifies 猫 (Japanese)

Contribute test

Comments

This relation was introduced in [DaCosta:Bond:2016]

[DaCosta:Bond:2016]Luis Morgado Da Costa, Francis Bond (2016) Wow! What a Useful Extension! Introducing Non-Referential Concepts to Wordnet In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="classifies"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i25399

Classified By (classified_by)back to top

"Concept B is modified by classifier A when it is counted."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse classifies
example cattle is classified_by head

Definition

Concept B is modified by classifier A when it is counted.

Examples

  • 'cattle <https://lr.soh.ntu.edu.sg/omw/omw/concepts/ili/48233>`_ is classified_by head
  • bacon is classified_by rasher
  • kucil is classified_by ekor (Indonesian)
  • 猫 is classified_by 匹 (Japanese)

Contribute test

Comments

This relation was introduced in [DaCosta:Bond:2016]

[DaCosta:Bond:2016]Luis Morgado Da Costa, Francis Bond (2016) Wow! What a Useful Extension! Introducing Non-Referential Concepts to Wordnet In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="classified_by"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i25002

Entails (entails)back to top

"impose, involve, or imply as a necessary accompaniment or result"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse is_entailed_by
example snore entails sleep

Definition

Entailment is a relation that links two verbs, and it is currently unilateral — Verb-A entails Verb-B, without a reciprocal or tracing link. This relation presupposes/requires a semantic restriction in which Verb-B has to take place before or during Verb-A.

Examples

Tests

yes a A cannot be done unless B is or has been done
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.

Comments

A verb A entails B if A cannot be done unless B is, or has been, done.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="entails"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name entailment
PlWordNet Relation Name holonimia podsytuacji
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i34846

Is Entailed By (is_entailed_by)back to top

"Opposite of entails"
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse also
example sleep is entailed by snore

Contribute a definition

Examples

Tests

yes a B is the result/happens because of the occurrence of A
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_entailed_by"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

PlWordNet Relation Name meronimia podsytuacji
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta

Domain (domain)back to top

"A concept which is a Topic, Region or Usage pointer of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse has_domain
example Contribute an example

Definition

Domain is an underspecified relation between two concepts where Concept B is a Topic (scientific category), Region or Usage pointer of Concept A.

Contribute more examples

Contribute test

Comments

This is an underspecified relation that covers Domain Topic, Domain Region, and Is Exemplified By. As such, it is not specified as a relation directly by wordnets, but a wordnet application may employ it as a general relation covering all its subtypes.

In EuroWordNet, Domain is moved to a separate ontology.(EuroWordNet General Document pp 8–10)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="domain"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name domain
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module domn

In Domain (has_domain)back to top

"A concept which is a term of a given Topic, Region or Usage concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse domain
example Contribute an example

Definition

In Domain is an underspecified relation between two concepts where Concept A is a Topic (scientific category, Region or Usage term of Concept B.

Contribute more examples

Contribute test

Comments

This is an underspecified relation that covers Has Domain Topic, Has Domain Region, and Exemplifies. As such, it is not specified as a relation directly by wordnets, but a wordnet application may employ it as a general relation covering all its subtypes.

In EuroWordNet, In Domain is moved to a separate ontology.(EuroWordNet General Document pp 8–10)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_domain"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name domain term
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module domt

Domain Topic (domain_topic)back to top

"A concept which is the scientific category pointer of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse has_domain_topic
example computer science is a domain topic of CPU

Definition

Domain Topic is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is a scientific category (e.g. computing, sport, biology, etc.) of concept A.

Examples

Contribute test

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="domain_topic"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="domain_topic"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Domain of synset - TOPIC
Princeton WordNet Pointer ;c
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmnc

Has Domain Topic (has_domain_topic)back to top

"A concept which is a term in the scientific category of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse domain_topic
example CPU has domain topic of computer science

Definition

Has Domain Topic is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is a scientific category (e.g. computing, sport, biology, etc.) of concept B.

Examples

Contribute test

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_domain_topic"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="has_domain_topic"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Member of this domain - TOPIC
Princeton WordNet Pointer -c
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmtc

Domain Region (domain_region)back to top

"A concept which is a geographical / cultural domain pointer of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse has_domain_region
example United States is a domain region of billion

Definition

Domain Region is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is a geographical / cultural domain of concept A.

Examples

Contribute test

Comments

We also agreed to change the name for these (to include both geographical and cultural regions)! But I'm not sure to what...

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="domain_region"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="domain_region"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Domain of synset - REGION
Princeton WordNet Pointer ;r
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmnr

Has Domain Region (has_domain_region)back to top

"A concept which is the term in the geographical / cultural domain of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse domain_region
example billion has domain region of United States

Definition

Has Domain Region is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is a term of the geographical / cultural domain of concept B.

Examples

Contribute test

Comments

We have discussed changing the name for these (as they include both geographical and cultural regions). But we have not yet come up with a good name.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_domain_region"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="has_domain_region"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Member of this domain - REGION
Princeton WordNet Pointer -r
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmtr

Exemplifies (exemplifies)back to top

"A concept which is the example of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse is_exemplified_by
example Band Aid exemplifies trademark

Definition

Exemplifies is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is the example of Concept B.

Examples

Contribute test

Comments

The name was changed from "Member of this domain - USAGE" as we found it too different from the standard meaning of domain.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="exemplifies"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="exemplifies"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Member of this domain - USAGE
Princeton WordNet Pointer -u
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmtu
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i108797

Is Exemplified By (is_exemplified_by)back to top

"A concept which is the type of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse exemplifies
example trademark is exemplified by Band Aid

Definition

Is Exemplified By is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is a type of Concept A, such as idiom, honorific or classifier.

Examples

Contribute test

Comments

We agreed to change the name for these with Christiane! We propose 'Exemplified_By'.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_exemplified_by"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="is_exemplified_by"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Domain of synset - USAGE
Princeton WordNet Pointer ;u
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmnu

Role (role)back to top

"A concept which is involved in the action or event expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved
example Contribute an example

Definition

Role is an underspecified relation between two concepts where concept A is typically involved in the action or event expressed by concept B.

Contribute more examples

Tests

Role / Involved as general relation (EWN test 29)

yes (a/an) A is the one/that who/which is typically involved in Bing
Conditions A is a noun
. B is a verb in the infinitive form
Example: A hammer is that which is typically involved in hammering
Effect: {hammer}(A) ROLE {to hammer}(B)
. {to hammer}(B) INVOLVED {hammer}(A)

Comments

This is an underspecified relation that covers Agent, Patient, Result, Instrument, Location, Direction, Target Direction, and Source Direction. As such, it is not specified as a relation directly by wordnets, but a wordnet application may employ it as a general relation covering all its subtypes.

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="role"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role
PlWordNet Relation Name rola
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i64041

Involved (involved)back to top

"A concept which is the action or event a given concept typically involved in."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse role
example Contribute an example

Definition

Involved is an underspecified relation between two concepts where concept B is the action or event concept A typically involved in.

Contribute more examples

Tests

Role / Involved as general relation (EWN test 29)

yes (a/an) A is the one/that who/which is typically involved in Bing
Conditions A is a noun
. B is a verb in the infinitive form
Example: A hammer is that which is typically involved in hammering
Effect: {hammer}(A) ROLE {to hammer}(B)
. {to hammer}(B) INVOLVED {hammer}(A)

Comments

This is an underspecified relation that covers Involved Agent, Involved Patient, Involved Result, Involved Instrument, Involved Location, Involved Direction, Involved Target Direction, and Involved Source Direction. As such, it is not specified as a relation directly by wordnets, but a wordnet application may employ it as a general relation covering all its subtypes.

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved
PlWordNet Relation Name unspecified subtype, time and causation inclusion
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i8315

Agent (agent)back to top

"A concept which is typically the one/that who/which does the action denoted by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_agent
example teacher is the agent of to teach

Definition

Agent is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is the semantic role of the animate entity that instigates or causes the happening of Concept B, typically intentionally.

Examples

Tests

Agent Involvement (EWN test 28)

yes a (A/an) A is the one/that who/which does the B, typically intentionally
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • Y is a verb in the gerundive form
Example: a A teacher is the one who does the teaching intentionally
Effect: . {teacher}(A) AGENT {to teach}(B)
. . {to teach}(B) INVOLVED AGENT {teacher}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="agent"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_agent
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69754

Involved Agent (involved_agent)back to top

"A concept which is the action done by an agent expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse agent
example to teach involved agent teacher

Definition

Involved Agent is a relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the action done by the agent expressed by concept A.

Examples

Tests

Agent Involvement (EWN test 28)

yes a (A/an) A is the one/that who/which does the B, typically intentionally
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • Y is a verb in the gerundive form
Example: a A teacher is the one who does the teaching intentionally
Effect: . {teacher}(A) AGENT {to teach}(B)
. . {to teach}(B) INVOLVED AGENT {teacher}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_agent
PlWordNet Relation Name agent inclusion

Patient (patient)back to top

"A concept which is the one/that who/which undergoes a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_patient
example learner is the patient of to learn

Definition

Patient is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is the semantic role of an entity that is not the agent but is directly involved in or affected by the happening denoted by Concept B.

Examples

Tests

Patient Involvement (EWN test 29)

yes a (A/an) A is the one/that who/which undergoes the B
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form
Example: a A learner is the one who undergoes the learning
Effect: . {learner}(A) PATIENT {to learn}(B)
. . {to learn}(B) INVOLVED PATIENT {learner}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="patient"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_patient
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69753

Involved Patient (involved_patient)back to top

"A concept which is the action that the patient expressed by a given concept undergoing."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse patient
example to learn involved patient learner

Definition

Involved Patient is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is typically an action or event that the patient expressed by Concept A undergoing.

Examples

Tests

Patient Involvement (EWN test 29)

yes a (A/an) A is the one/that who/which undergoes the B
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form
Example: a A learner is the one who undergoes the learning
Effect: . {learner}(A) PATIENT {to learn}(B)
. . {to learn}(B) INVOLVED PATIENT {learner}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_patient"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_patient
PlWordNet Relation Name patient inclusion

Result (result)back to top

"A concept which comes into existence as a result of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_result
example crystal is the result of to crystalize

Definition

Result is a relation between two concepts where Concept A exists as a result only by virtue of the activity denoted by Concept B.

Examples

Tests

Result Involvement (EWN test 30)

yes a (A/an) A comes into existence as a result of B
yes b (A/an) A is the result of B
yes c (A/an) A is created by B
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form and a hyponym of “make”, “produce”, “enerate”.
Example: a a crystal comes into existence as a result of crystalizing
. b a crystal is the result of crystalizing
. c a crystal is created by crystalizing
Effect: . {crystal}(A) RESULT {to crystalize}(B)
. . {to crystalize}(B) INVOLVED RESULT {crystal}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="result"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_result
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69759

Involved Result (involved_result)back to top

"A concept which is the action or event with a result of a given concept comes into existence."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse result
example to crystalize involved result of crystal

Definition

Involved Result is a relation between two concepts where concept B comes into existence as a result of concept A.

Examples

Tests

Result Involvement (EWN test 30)

yes a (A/an) A comes into existence as a result of B
yes b (A/an) A is the result of B
yes c (A/an) A is created by B
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form and a hyponym of “make”, “produce”, “enerate”.
Example: a a crystal comes into existence as a result of crystalizing
. b a crystal is the result of crystalizing
. c a crystal is created by crystalizing
Effect: . {crystal}(A) RESULT {to crystalize}(B)
. . {to crystalize}(B) INVOLVED RESULT {crystal}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_result"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_result
PlWordNet Relation Name result inclusion

Instrument (instrument)back to top

"A concept which is the instrument necessary for the action or event expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_instrument
example hammer is the instrument of to hammer

Definition

Instrument is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is the semantic role of the entity (usually inanimate) that the agent uses to perform an action or start a process expressed by Concept B.

Examples

Tests

Instrument Involvement (EWN test 31)

yes a (A/an) A is either i) the instrument that or ii) what is used to Y (with)
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the infinitive form
Example (1): . An hammer is the instrument that is used to hammer
Effect: . {hammer}(A) INSTRUMENT {to hammer}(B)
Effect: . {to hammer}(B) INVOLVED INSTRUMENT {hammer}(A)
Example (2): . A sailing boat is what is used to sail with
Effect: . {sail}(A) INSTRUMENT {to sail}(B)
Example (3): . Pen/Ink/Paper is what is used to write
Effect: . {pen}(A) INSTRUMENT {to write}(B)
. . {ink}(A) INSTRUMENT {to write}(B)
. . {paper}(A) INSTRUMENT {to write}(B)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_instrument
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i69756

Involved Instrument (involved_instrument)back to top

"A concept which is typically the action with the instrument expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse instrument
example to hammer involved instrument hammer

Definition

Involved Instrument is a relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the action or event with the usage of instrument expressed by concept A.

Examples

Tests

Instrument Involvement (EWN test 31)

yes a (A/an) A is either i) the instrument that or ii) what is used to Y (with)
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the infinitive form
Example (1): . An hammer is the instrument that is used to hammer
Effect: . {hammer}(A) INSTRUMENT {to hammer}(B)
Effect: . {to hammer}(B) INVOLVED INSTRUMENT {hammer}(A)
Example (2): . A sailing boat is what is used to sail with
Effect: . {sail}(A) INSTRUMENT {to sail}(B)
Example (3): . Pen/Ink/Paper is what is used to write
Effect: . {pen}(A) INSTRUMENT {to write}(B)
. . {ink}(A) INSTRUMENT {to write}(B)
. . {paper}(A) INSTRUMENT {to write}(B)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_instrument
PlWordNet Relation Name instrument inclusion

Location (location)back to top

"A concept which is the place where the event expressed by a given concept happens."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_location
example school is the location of to teach

Definition

Location is a relation between two concepts where concept A is the location where the action or event expressed by concept B takes place.

Examples

Tests

Location Involvement (EWN test 32)

yes a (A/an) A is the place where the B happens
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form
Example: a A school is the place where the teaching happens
Effect: . {school}(A) LOCATION {to teach}(B)
. . {to teach}(B) INVOLVED LOCATION {school}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="location"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_location
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i35580

Involved Location (involved_location)back to top

"A concept which is the event happening in a place expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse location
example to teach involved location school

Definition

Involved Location is a relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the action or event which takes place in the location expressed by concept A.

Examples

Tests

Location Involvement (EWN test 32)

yes a (A/an) A is the place where the B happens
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb in the gerundive form
Example: a A school is the place where the teaching happens
Effect: . {school}(A) LOCATION {to teach}(B)
. . {to teach}(B) INVOLVED LOCATION {school}(A)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_location"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_location
PlWordNet Relation Name location inclusion

Direction (direction)back to top

"A concept which is the direction of the action or event expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_direction
example place is the direction of to pass

Definition

Direction is a relation between two concepts where concept A is typically the direction or location of the action or event expressed by concept B.

Examples

Tests

Direction Involvement (EWN test 33)

yes a It is possible to B from/to/over/across/through a place (A)
Conditions: .
  • B is a verb in the infinitive form
Example: a It is possible to pass though a place
Effect: . {place}(A) DIRECTION {to pass}(B)
. . {to pass}(B) INVOLVED DIRECTION {place}(A)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="direction"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_direction
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i82556

Involved Direction (involved_direction)back to top

"A concept which is the action with the direction expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse direction
example to pass involved direction place

Definition

Involved Direction is a relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the action or event with the direction or location expressed by concept A.

Examples

Tests

Direction Involvement (EWN test 33)

yes a It is possible to B from/to/over/across/through a place (A)
Conditions: .
  • B is a verb in the infinitive form
Example: a It is possible to pass though a place
Effect: . {place}(A) DIRECTION {to pass}(B)
. . {to pass}(B) INVOLVED DIRECTION {place}(A)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_direction

Target Direction (target_direction)back to top

"A concept which is the place where the action or event expressed by a given concept leads to."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_target_direction
example ground is the target direction of to collapse, to fall heavily

Definition

Target Direction is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey) of an action or event expressed by Concept B.

Examples

Tests

Target-Direction Involvement (EWN test 35)

yes a (a/an/the) A is the place to which Ying happens / one Bs
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb
Example: a The ground is the place to which one collapses/falls heavily
Effect: . {ground}(A) TARGET DIRECTION {to collapse, to fall heavily}(B)
. . {to collapse, to fall heavily}(B) INVOLVED TARGET DIRECTION {ground}(A)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="target_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_target_direction
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i82007

Involved Target Direction (involved_target_direction)back to top

"A concept which is the action or event leading to a place expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse target_direction
example to collapse, to fall heavily involved target direction ground

Definition

Involved Target Direction is a relation between two concepts where concept B is the the action or event leading to a place expressed by concept A.

Examples

Tests

Target-Direction Involvement (EWN test 35)

yes a (a/an/the) A is the place to which Ying happens / one Bs
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb
Example: a The ground is the place to which one collapses/falls heavily
Effect: . {ground}(A) TARGET DIRECTION { o collapse, to fall heavily}(B)
. . {to collapse, to fall heavily}(B) INVOLVED TARGET DIRECTION {ground}(A)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_target_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_target_direction

Source Direction (source_direction)back to top

"A concept which is the place from where the event expressed by a given concept begins."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse involved_source_direction
example the start is the source direction of to race

Definition

Source Direction is a relation between two concepts where concept A is the place from where the action or event expressed by concept B begins/starts/happens.

Examples

Tests

Source-Direction Involvement (EWN test 34)

yes a (A/an/the) A is the place from where Bing begins/starts/happens / one Bs
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb
Example: a The start is the place from where the racing starts
Effect: . {the start}(A) SOURCE DIRECTION {to race}(B)
. . {to race}(B) INVOLVED SOURCE DIRECTION {the start}(A)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="source_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_source_direction
Open Multilingual Wordnet Concept i81759

Involved Source Direction (involved_source_direction)back to top

"A concept which is the action beginning from a place of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse source_direction
example to race involved source direction the start

Definition

Involved Source Direction is a relation between two concepts where concept B is the action or event which begins/starts/happens from a place expressed by concept A.

Examples

Tests

Source-Direction Involvement (EWN test 34)

yes a (A/an/the) A is the place from where Bing begins/starts/happens / one Bs
Conditions: .
  • A is a noun
. .
  • B is a verb
Example: a The start is the place from where the racing starts
Effect: . {the start}(A) SOURCE DIRECTION {to race}(B)
. . {to race}(B) INVOLVED SOURCE DIRECTION {the start}(A)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_source_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_source_direction

Co Role (co_role)back to top

"A concept undergoes an action in which a given concept is involved."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_role
example Contribute an example

Definition

Co Role is an underspecified relation between two concepts where Concept A undergoes an action in which Concept B is involved (bidirectional).

Contribute more examples

Contribute test

Comments

This is an underspecified relation that covers Co Agent Patient, Co Patient Agent, Co Agent Instrument, Co Instrument Agent, Co Agent Result, Co Result Agent, Co Patient Instrument, Co Instrument Patient, Co Result Instrument, and Co Instrument Result. As such, it is not specified as a relation directly by wordnets, but a wordnet application may employ it as a general relation covering all its subtypes.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_role"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_role

Co Agent Patient (co_agent_patient)back to top

"A concept which is the patient undergoing an action carried out by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_patient_agent
example victim is the co agent patient of criminal

Definition

Co Agent Patient is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is the patient undergoing an action carried out by Concept A.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_agent_patient"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_agent_patient

Co Patient Agent (co_patient_agent)back to top

"A concept which carries out an action a given concept undergoing."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_agent_patient
example criminal is the co patient agent of victim

Definition

Co Patient Agent is a relation between two concepts where Concept A carries out an action Concept B undergoing.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_patient_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_patient_agent

Co Agent Instrument (co_agent_instrument)back to top

"A concept which is the instrument used by a given concept in an action."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_instrument_agent
example guitar is the co agent instrument of guitar player

Definition

Co Agent Instrument is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is the instrument used by Concept A in a certain action.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_agent_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_agent_instrument

Co Instrument Agent (co_instrument_agent)back to top

"A concept which carries out an action by using a given concept as an instrument."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_agent_instrument
example guitar player is the co instrument agent of guitar

Definition

Co Instrument Agent is a relation between two concepts where Concept A carries out an action by using Concept B as an instrument.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_instrument_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_instrument_agent

Co Agent Result (co_agent_result)back to top

"A concept which is the result of an action taken by a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_result_agent
example pastry is the co agent result of pastry cook

Definition

Co Agent Result is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is the result of an action carried out by Concept A.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_agent_result"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_agent_result

Co Result Agent (co_result_agent)back to top

"A concept which takes an action resulting in a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_agent_result
example pastry cook is the co result agent of pastry

Definition

Co Result Agent is a relation between two concepts where Concept A takes an action resulting in Concept B.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_result_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_result_agent

Co Patient Instrument (co_patient_instrument)back to top

"A concept which is used as an instrument in an action a given concept undergoes."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_instrument_patient
example bread knife is the co patient instrument of bread

Definition

Co Patient Instrument is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is the instrument used in an action which Concept A undergoes.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_patient_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_patient_instrument

Co Instrument Patient (co_instrument_patient)back to top

"A concept which undergoes an action with the use of a given concept as an instrument."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_patient_instrument
example bread is the co instrument patient of bread knife

Definition

Co Instrument Patient is a relation between two concepts where Concept A undergoes an action for which the instrument expressed by Concept B is used.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_instrument_patient"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_instrument_patient

Co Result Instrument (co_result_instrument)back to top

"A concept which is used as an instrument in an action resulting in a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_instrument_result
example photograpic camera is the co result instrument of photo

Definition

Co Result Instrument is a relation between two concepts where Concept B is an instrument used in an action resulting in Concept A.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_result_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_result_instrument

Co Instrument Result (co_instrument_result)back to top

"A concept which is the result of an action using an instrument of a given concept."
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverse co_result_instrument
example photo is the co instrument result of photograpic camera

Definition

Co Instrument Result is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is the result of an action carried out by the instrument expressed by Concept B.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_instrument_result"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_instrument_result

Participle (participle)back to top

"A concept which is a participial adjective derived from a verb expressed by a given concept."
applicability
  • sense–sense
example interesting is the participial of interest

Definition

Participle is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is a participial adjective which is drived from Concept B in the form of verb.

Examples

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Comments

These are not linked in the NLTK interface so are not shown in OMW 1.0 (or as far as I can see, anywhere FCB)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="participle"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

PERL WordNet-QueryData Module part

Pertainym (pertainym)back to top

"A concept which is of or pertaining to a given concept."
symbol
applicability
  • sense–sense
reverse pertainym
example slowly is the pertainym of slow

Definition

Pertainym is a relation between two concepts where Concept A is related or applicable to Concept B. Typically A will be an adjective and B a noun, or A an adverb and B an adjective. It is typically used for adjectives that are morphologically related to the noun they are related to, are not gradable and do not have antonyms. It is also used for nouns that are semantically related but not morphologically related, typically because came from different languages historically, so lunar for moon or arborial for tree.

Examples

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Comments

This may be specialized further. It includes zero derivations. Gnerally it is used for different syntactic categories that have the same root form and are semantically related. Wordnet does not say which is the baseform, the relationship is fully reversible.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="pertainym"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

PERL WordNet-QueryData Module pert

Derivation (derivation)back to top

"A concept which is a derivationally related form of a given concept."
symbol
applicability
  • sense–sense
reverse derivation
example yearly is the derivation of year

Definition

Derivation is a relation between two concept where Concept A is the derivationally related form of Concept B.

Examples

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="derivation"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer +
PlWordNet Relation Name derywacyjność
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module deri

Feminine form (feminine_form_of)back to top

"A concept used to refer to female members of a class"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse has_feminine_form
example sow is a female pig

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="feminine_form_of"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="feminine_form_of"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Has Feminine form (has_feminine_form)back to top

"A concept which has a special concept for female members of its class"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse feminine_form_of
example pig has female sow

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_feminine_form"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="has_feminine_form"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Masculine Form (masculine_form_of)back to top

"A concept used to refer to male members of a class"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse has_masculine_form
example boar is a male pig

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="masculine_form_of"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="masculine_form_of"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Has Masculine Form (has_masculine_form)back to top

"A concept which has a special concept for male members of its class"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse masculine_form_of
example pig <https://lr.soh.ntu.edu.sg/omw/omw/concepts/ili/48199>`_ has male boar

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_masculine_form"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="has_masculine_form"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Gradable Antonym (anto_gradable)back to top

"word pairs whose meanings are opposite and which lie on a continuous spectrum"
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse anto_gradable
example hot is a gradable antonym cold

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Comments

Also known as just converse or relational antonym.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="anto_gradable"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="anto_gradable"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Simple Antonym (anto_simple)back to top

"word pairs whose meanings are opposite but whose meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum"
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse anto_simple
example alive is a simple antonym dead

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="anto_simple"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="anto_simple"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

Converse Antonym (anto_converse)back to top

"word pairs that name or describe a single relationship from opposite perspectives"
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse anto_converse
example parent is a converse antonym of child

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XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-A" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="anto_converse"
		  target="wn-synset-B"/>
</Synset>
<Sense id="wn-sense-A" synset="wn-synset-A">
   <SenseRelation relType="anto_converse"
		  target="wn-sense-B"/>
 </Sense>

References