Open Wordnet Documentation

Contents

Relations

Constitutive (constitutive)back to top

"Core semantic relations that define synsets"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability(not directly applicable)
reverse(no reverse relation defined)
example(no example given)

Definition

Core semantic relations that define synsets.

We follow the discussion in [Maziarz:Piasecki:Szpakowicz:2013]

[Maziarz:Piasecki:Szpakowicz:2013]The chicken-and-egg problem in wordnet design: synonymy, synsets and constitutive relations. Language Resources and Evaluation, 47(3), pp 769–79

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

Project-specific Names

(no project names defined)

Hyponym (hyponym)back to top

"a word that is more specific than a given word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversehypernym
exampledog is a hyponym of animal

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept B is a type of concept A.

Examples

  • beef hyponym meat
  • pear hyponym edible fruit
  • dictionary hyponym wordbook

Tests

Hyponymy-relation between nouns (EWN test 9)

yes a A/an X is a/an Y with certain properties
. . It is a X and therefore also a Y
. . If it is a X then it must be a Y
no b the converse of any of the (a) sentences.
Conditions:
  • both X and Y are singular nouns or plural nouns.

Hyperonymy/hyponymy between verb synsets (EWN test 11)

yes a to X is to Y + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
no b to Y is to X + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
Conditions:
  • X is a verb in the infinitive form
  • Y is a verb in the infinitive form
  • there is at least one specifying AdvP, NP or PP that applies to the Y-phrase.

Comments

This is the fundamental relation, generally used for nouns and verbs. In plWordNet it is also extended to adjectives and adverbs.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="hyponym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name hyponym
Princeton WordNet Pointer ~
Euro WordNet Relation Name HAS_HYPERONYM
PlWordNet Relation Name hyponymy
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hypo
Interlingual Index Node i69570

Hypernym (hypernym)back to top

"a word that is more general than a given word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversehyponym
exampleanimal is a hypernym of dog

Definition

A hypernym of something is its superordinate term: if X is a hypernym of Y, then all Y are X.

Examples

  • meat hypernym beef
  • edible fruit hypernym pear
  • wordbook hypernym dictionary

Tests

Hyperonymy/hyponymy between verb synsets (EWN test 11)

yes a to X is to Y + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
no b to Y is to X + AdvP/AdjP/NP/PP
Conditions:
  • X is a verb in the infinitive form
  • Y is a verb in the infinitive form
  • there is at least one specifying modifier (AdvP, NP or PP) that applies to the Y-phrase

Comments

This is the fundamental relation, generally used for nouns and verbs. In the original Princeton WordNet the name 'troponym' was used for this relation when relating to verbs. In plWordNet it is also extended to adjectives and adverbs.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="hypernym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer @
Euro WordNet Relation Name HAS_HYPONYM
PlWordNet Relation Name hyperonymy
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hype
Interlingual Index Node i69569

Instance Hyponym (instance_hyponym)back to top

"an occurrence of something"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinstance_hypernym
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X (instance_hyponym) is a type of concept Y (instance_hypernym), and where X is an individual entity. X will be a terminal node in the hierarchy. Instances are expressed by proper nouns.

An instance hypernym can also be referred to as a type

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="instance_hyponym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Instance Hypernym
Princeton WordNet Pointer ~i
Euro WordNet Relation Name BELONGS_To_CLASS
PlWordNet Relation Name instance
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hasi
Interlingual Index Node i75102

Instance Hypernym (instance_hypernym)back to top

"the type of an instance"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinstance_hyponym
examplecity/Manchester

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X (instance_hyponym) is a type of concept Y (instance_hypernym), and where X is an individual entity. X will be a terminal node in the hierarchy. Instances are expressed by proper nouns.

An instance hypernym can also be referred to as a type

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

Yes X is one of the Ys
No Y is one of the Xs

Condition: X is a proper noun (or named entity), Y is a common noun.

Comments

Sometimes modelled as hyponomy/hypernymy relations.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="instance_hypernym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Instance Hypernym
Princeton WordNet Pointer @i
Euro WordNet Relation Name HAS_INSTANCE
PlWordNet Relation Name type
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module inst

Antonym (antonym)back to top

"An opposite and inherently incompatible word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverseantonym
example(no example given)

Definition

Antonymy is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-X's antonym is Concept-Y, and Concept-Y's antonym is Concept-X.

It denotes any kind of proper antonymy between two concepts. It accounts for most types of antonymy, including gradable antonyms (e.g. hot vs. cold), complementary antonyms (e.g. superior vs. inferior) and converse or relational antonyms (e.g. buy vs. sell). Antonymy can link any two members of any part-of-speech — verbs (e.g. dress vs. undress), adverbs (e.g. naturally vs. unnaturally), adjectives (e.g. superior vs. inferior) and nouns (e.g. catalyst vs. anti-catalyst), and should only ever link concepts with the same part-of-speech.

An opposite and inherently incompatible word.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

It is primarily a relation between senses, but sense level antonymy implies a looser synset level relation, which we automatically add to make it avaiable for wordnets that do not yet have sense level links.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="antonym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="antonym"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer !
PlWordNet Relation Name complementary, proper and converse antonymy
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module antonym
Interlingual Index Node i69547

Equal Synonym (eq_synonym)back to top

"X and Y are equivalent concepts but their nature requires that they remain separate (e.g. Exemplifies)"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseeq_synonym
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where X and Y are equivalent concepts but their nature requires that they remain separate.

Equality is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-X is equal to Concept-Y, and Concept-Y is equal to Concept-X.

It denotes a special kind full synonimity that allows separation of synonym lemmas in two different synsets. It can occur with any type of part-of-speech.

At the moment, we're currently making use of this in order to isolate chengyu (成语), a traditional four-character Chinese idiom.

Examples

  • 一模一样 (70100056-a) EQUALS identical (02068946-a) identical
  • (02068946-a) EQUALS 一模一样 (70100056-a)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="eq_synonym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name eq_synonym
Interlingual Index Node i69607

Similar (similar)back to top

"(of words) expressing closely related meanings"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reversesimilar
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X and concept Y are closely related in meaning but are not in the same synset. Similarity is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-X is similar to Concept-Y, and Concept-Y is similar to Concept-X.

This link was originally used to relate adjectives, but we have unconstrained this use, and we're making use of this link to relate all parts-of-speech.

Similarity can be understood as weak synonymy, opposed to the full synonymy that all lemmas in a concept must share. As adjectives are not structured hierarchically (hyponymy/hypernymy) like verbs or nouns, the similarity link helps showing relations between them.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

This relation coerces PWN Similar to relation for adjectives, Verb Group relation for verbs and EWN NEAR_SYNONYM for nouns and verbs. In plWN Similarity relation for adjectives to nouns is a unilateral sense relation which is why it is not given in the mappings below.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="similar"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="similar"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Similar to and Verb Group
Princeton WordNet Pointer &
Euro WordNet Relation Name near_synonym
PlWordNet Relation Name near_synonymy
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module sim
Interlingual Index Node i13187

Meronym (meronym)back to top

"Y makes up a part of X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseholonym
examplehand/finger

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y makes up a part of concept X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

This is an unspecified relation that covers all the relations below. This can be computed automatically, it shouldn't be a special relation.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="meronym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name meronym
Princeton WordNet Pointer %
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_meronym
PlWordNet Relation Name meronym
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta
Interlingual Index Node i69575

Holonym (holonym)back to top

"X makes up a part of Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversemeronym
examplefinger/hand

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X makes up a part of concept Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

This is an unspecified relation that covers all the relations below. This can be computed automatically, it shouldn't be a special relation.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holonym"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer #
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holonym
PlWordNet Relation Name holonym
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta
Interlingual Index Node i69567

Location Meronym (mero_location)back to top

"X is a place located in Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseholo_location
examplecity/centre

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is a place located in concept Y.

Examples

desert > oasis

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_location"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_location
PlWordNet Relation Name meronymy_location
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hsub

Location Holonym (holo_location)back to top

"Y is a place located in X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversemero_location
examplecentre/city

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is a place located in concept X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_location"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_location
PlWordNet Relation Name holonymy_location
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hsub

Member Meronym (mero_member)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseholo_member
exampleplayer/team

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is a member/ element of concept X. Meronym and Holonym Membership is a paired relation that denotes group formation and membership. Is different from hyponym as it does not relates a subkind of a concept. It links groups to members — Concept-Y is composed of many members of Concept-X; and many instances of Concept-X form Concept-Y.

Examples

fleet > ship

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_member"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name member meronym
Princeton WordNet Pointer %m
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_member
PlWordNet Relation Name meronymy_member
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module mmem

Member Holonym (holo_member)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversemero_member
exampleteam/player

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is a member/ element of concept Y. Meronym and Holonym Membership is a paired relation that denotes group formation and membership. Is different from hyponym as it does not relates a subkind of a concept. It links groups to members — Concept-Y is composed of many members of Concept-X; and many instances of Concept-X form Concept-Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_member"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name member holonym
Princeton WordNet Pointer #m
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_member
PlWordNet Relation Name holonymy_member
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hmem

Part Meronym (mero_part)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseholo_part
examplecar/wheel

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is a component of concept X. Meronym and Holonym Part is a paired relation that denotes proper parts (separable, in principle), which preserve a belonging relation even if the physical link is broken — Concept-X can be separated into Concept-Y”; and Concept-Y is a part of some Concept-X.

This relation is also frequently used to denote geographical inclusiveness relations.

Examples

hand > finger

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

This relation is also frequently used by PWN to denote geographical inclusiveness relations.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_part"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name part meronym
Princeton WordNet Pointer %p
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_part
PlWordNet Relation Name meronymy_part
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module mprt

Part Holonym (holo_part)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversemero_part
examplewheel/car

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is a component of concept Y. Meronym and Holonym Part is a paired relation that denotes proper parts (separable, in principle), which preserve a belonging relation even if the physical link is broken — Concept-X can be separated into Concept-Y”; and Concept-Y is a part of some Concept-X.

This relation is also frequently used to denote geographical inclusiveness relations.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_part"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name part holonym
Princeton WordNet Pointer #p
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_part
PlWordNet Relation Name holonymy_part
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hprt

Portion Meronym (mero_portion)back to top

"X is an amount/piece/portion of Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseholo_portion
exampledrop/liquid

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is an amount/piece/portion of concept Y.

Examples

bread > slice

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_portion"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name portion meronym
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_portion
PlWordNet Relation Name meronymy_portion
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hsub

Portion Holonym (holo_portion)back to top

"Y is an amount/piece/portion of X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversemero_portion
exampleliquid/drop

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is an amount/piece/portion of concept X

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_portion"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_portion
PlWordNet Relation Name holonymy_portion
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hsub

Substance Meronym (mero_substance)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseholo_substance
examplestick/wood

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is made of concept Y. Meronym and Holonym Substance is a paired relation that denotes a higher bound between part and whole. Separating/removing the substance part, will change the whole — Concept-X is made of Concept-Y; and Concept-Y is a substance of Concept-X”.

Examples

book > paper

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="mero_substance"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name substance meronym
Princeton WordNet Pointer %s
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_mero_madeof
PlWordNet Relation Name meronymy_substance
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module msub

Substance Holonym (holo_substance)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversemero_substance
examplewood/stick

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is made of concept X. Meronym and Holonym Substance is a paired relation that denotes a higher bound between part and whole. Separating/removing the substance part, will change the whole — Concept-X is made of Concept-Y; and Concept-Y is a substance of Concept-X”.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="holo_substance"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name substance holonym
Princeton WordNet Pointer #s
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_holo_madeof
PlWordNet Relation Name holonymy_substance
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module hsub

Other (other)back to top

"Any relation not otherwise specified"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverse(no reverse relation defined)
example(no example given)

Definition

This is used for semantic relation types not currently supported by the OMW DTD. The exact relation type can be given with dc:type:

<SynsetRelation relType="other" dc:type="emotion" target="example-en-1234-n"/>

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

Because we don't know what it means, we cannot give it a reverse relation.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="other"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="other"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Interlingual Index Node i11342

See also (also)back to top

"a word having a loose or fuzzy semantic relation to another word"
symbol
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reversealso
example(no example given)

Definition

‘See Also’ is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-X relates to Concept-Y, and Concept-Y relates to Concept-X.

It denotes a relation of related meaning with another concept (going beyond synonymy and similarity).

This link was originally used to relate adjectives, but we have unconstrained this use, and we're making use of this link to relate all parts-of-speech.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

Also known as fuzzynym

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="also"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="also"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name also see
Princeton WordNet Pointer ^
PlWordNet Relation Name inchoativity, iterativity, distributivity, anteriority
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module also

State Of (state_of)back to top

"Y is qualified by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversebe_in_state
examplepoor/poor (a poor person)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is qualified by concept X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units. FCB: isn't this the same as attribute (but split into two directions)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="state_of"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name attribute
Euro WordNet Relation Name state_of
PlWordNet Relation Name state
Interlingual Index Node i35578

Be In State (be_in_state)back to top

"X is qualified by Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversestate_of
examplepoor (a poor person)/poor

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is qualified by concept Y.

X is qualified by Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="be_in_state"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name be_in_state
PlWordNet Relation Name bearer of state

Causes (causes)back to top

"any entity that produces an effect or is responsible for events or results"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseis_caused_by
examplekill/die

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y comes into existence as a result of concept X. Entailment is a relation that links two verbs, and it is currently unilateral — Verb-X causes Verb-Y, without a reciprocal or tracing link. Causation presupposes/requires that some Verb-Y will, inevitably, take place during or after Verb-X (e.g. if Verb-X occurs, then Verb-Y will also occur).

While not exclusive to these types of verbs, many verbs that have both a transitive and an intransitive form will frequently be submitted to this relation.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

EUWN's definition of CAUSES is broader than that of PWN. It seems possible to just absorb PWN's links.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="causes"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name cause
Princeton WordNet Pointer >
Euro WordNet Relation Name causes
PlWordNet Relation Name causation
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module caus
Interlingual Index Node i35561

Is Caused By (is_caused_by)back to top

"X comes about because of Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversecauses
exampledie/kill

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X comes into existence as a result of concept Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

The 'is caused by' relation was missing from PWN before.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_caused_by"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name is_caused_by
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module caus

Subevent (subevent)back to top

"Y takes place during or as part of X, and whenever Y takes place, X takes place"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseis_subevent_of
examplesleep/snore

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y takes place during or as part of concept X, and whenever concept Y takes place, concept X takes place.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

The EUWN CAUSES relation is broader than the PWN in such a way that it actually includes links that were linked as ENTAILMENT by the PWN (e.g. to suceed IS_CAUSED_BY to try; to try CAUSES succeed [non-factive, intention]). This means that HAS_SUBVENT and IS_SUBVENT_OF should not include every relation marked as ENTAILMENT by the PWN.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="subevent"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer \*
Euro WordNet Relation Name has_subevent
PlWordNet Relation Name verbal_holonymy
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta

Is Subevent Of (is_subevent_of)back to top

"X takes place during or as part of Y, and whenever X takes place, Y takes place"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversesubevent
examplesnore/sleep

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X takes place during or as part of concept Y, and whenever concept X takes place, concept Y takes place.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_subevent_of"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name is_subevent_of
PlWordNet Relation Name verbal_meronymy
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta

Manner Of (manner_of)back to top

"X qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by Y takes place"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversein_manner
examplenoisely/slurp

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by concept Y takes place.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="manner_of"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name manner_of
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta
Interlingual Index Node i62791

In Manner (in_manner)back to top

"Y qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by X takes place"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversemanner_of
exampleslurp/noisely

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y qualifies the manner in which an action or event expressed by concept X takes place.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="in_manner"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name in_manner
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module enta

Attribute (attribute)back to top

"an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseattribute
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between nominal and adjectival concepts where the concept X is an attribute of concept Y. ‘Attributes’ is a self-reciprocal link (the two directions of this relation share the same meaning) — Concept-X attributes to Concept-Y, and Concept-Y attributes to Concept-X.

It denotes a relation between a noun and its adjectival attributes, and vice-versa — for this reason it should only link adjectives to nouns and vice-versa.

Examples

  • fertile (01001689-a) ATTRIBUTES: fertility (14051494-n)
  • fertility (14051494-n) ATTRIBUTES: fertile (01001689-a)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWN Value_of_the_attribute is a unilateral relation from adjectives to nouns.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="attribute"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name attribute
Princeton WordNet Pointer =
PlWordNet Relation Name value_of_the_attribute
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module attr
Interlingual Index Node i35577

Restricts (restricts)back to top

"A relation between an adjectival X (quantifier/determiner) and a nominal (pronominal) Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverserestricted_by
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between an adjectival concept X (quantifier/determiner) and a nominal (pronominal) concept Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

This would work for features like 'medial' or 'proximal' in pronouns, or 'every' in everybody, or 'male' for male personal pronouns, but not masculine agreeement in gendered languages. This relation will include some things that are now marked as domain usage. (to be corrected soon'ish)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="restricts"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Interlingual Index Node i22888

Restricted By (restricted_by)back to top

"A relation between nominal (pronominal) Y and an adjectival X (quantifier/determiner)"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverserestricts
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between nominal (pronominal) concept Y and an adjectival concept X (quantifier/determiner).

Examples

  • this-a (77000061-a) QUANTIFIES [qant] this-n (77000061-n)
  • this-n (77000061-n) QUANTIFIER: [hasq] this-a (77000061-a)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="restricted_by"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

(no project names defined)

Classifies (classifies)back to top

"A relation between a classifier X and Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseclassified_by
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between a classifier concept X and concept Y. A relation between a classifier X and Y

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

currently we only have links for nominal concepts, but we will do it for other POS (e.g. v)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="classifies"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Interlingual Index Node i25399

Classified By (classified_by)back to top

"A relation between Y and a classifier X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseclassifies
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between concept Y and a classifier concept X. A relation between Y and a classifier X

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="classified_by"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Interlingual Index Node i25002

Entails (entails)back to top

"impose, involve, or imply as a necessary accompaniment or result"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseis_entailed_by
example(no example given)

Definition

Entailment is a relation that links two verbs, and it is currently unilateral — Verb-X entails Verb-Y, without a reciprocal or tracing link. This relation presupposes/requires a semantic restriction in which Verb-Y has to take place before or during Verb-X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="entails"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name entailment
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module participle
Interlingual Index Node i34846

Is Entailed By (is_entailed_by)back to top

"Opposite of entails"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseentails
example(no example given)

Definition

(no definition)

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_entailed_by"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

PERL WordNet-QueryData Module participle

Domain (domain)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversehas_domain
example(no example given)

Definition

(no definition)

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="domain"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

(no project names defined)

In Domain (has_domain)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversedomain
example(no example given)

Definition

(no definition)

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_domain"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

(no project names defined)

Domain Topic (domain_topic)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–synset
  • sense–sense
reversehas_domain_topic
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where Y is a scientific domain (e.g. computing, sport, biology, etc.) of concept X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="domain_topic"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="domain_topic"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name domain category
Princeton WordNet Pointer ;c
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module Domain of synset - TOPIC

Has Domain Topic (has_domain_topic)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reversedomain_topic
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where X is a scientific domain (e.g. computing, sport, biology, etc.) of concept Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_domain_topic"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="has_domain_topic"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer -c
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmtc

Domain Region (domain_region)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–synset
  • sense–sense
reversehas_domain_region
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where Y is a geographical / cultural domain of concept X. Domain(Region) and Domain-Term(Region) is a paired relation between terms/concepts of any part-of-speech and a related geographical region.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

We also agreed to change the name for these (to include both geographical and cultural regions)! But I'm not sure to what...

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="domain_region"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="domain_region"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Domain of synset - REGION
Princeton WordNet Pointer ;r
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmnr

Has Domain Region (has_domain_region)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reversedomain_region
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where X is a geographical / cultural domain of concept Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

We have discussed changing the name for these (as they include both geographical and cultural regions). But we have not yet come up with a good name.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="has_domain_region"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="has_domain_region"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Pointer -r
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmtr

Exemplifies (exemplifies)back to top

"clarify by giving an example of"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–synset
  • sense–sense
reverseis_exemplified_by
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where Y is a type of concept X. such as idiom, honorific or classifier.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

The name was changed from "Domain of synset - USAGE" as we found it too different from the standard meaning of domain.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="exemplifies"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="exemplifies"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name Domain of synset - USAGE
Princeton WordNet Pointer ;u
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmnu
Interlingual Index Node i26682

Is Exemplified By (is_exemplified_by)back to top

symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
  • sense–sense
reverseexemplifies
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where A is an example of the type B.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

We agreed to change the name for these with Christiane! We propose 'Exemplified_By'.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="is_exemplified_by"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>
 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="is_exemplified_by"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

Princeton WordNet Relation Name domain term usage
Princeton WordNet Pointer -u
PERL WordNet-QueryData Module dmtu

Role (role)back to top

"X is typically involved in the action or event expressed by Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: A relation between two concepts where concept X is typically involved in the action or event expressed by concept Y. It is the supertype of agent, instrument, patient, result, location, direction, target_direction, and source_direction.

Examples

  • hammer role to hammer

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="role"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role
PlWordNet Relation Name role_unspecified subtype and role_time
Interlingual Index Node i64041

Involved (involved)back to top

"Y is typically involved in the action or event expressed by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverserole
example(no example given)

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept Y is typically involved in the action or event expressed by concept X. Involved is the supertype of involved_agent, involved_patient, involved_result, involved_instrument, involved_location, involved_direction, involved_target_direction, and involved_source_direction.

Examples

  • to hammer involved hammer

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved
PlWordNet Relation Name unspecified subtype, time and causation inclusion
Interlingual Index Node i8315

Agent (agent)back to top

"X is typically the agent of the action expressed by Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_agent
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: (A/an) X is the one/that who/which does the Y, typically intentionally. X is typically the agent of the action expressed by Y

Examples

  • teacher agent to teach

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="agent"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_agent
PlWordNet Relation Name role_agent
Interlingual Index Node i69754

Involved Agent (involved_agent)back to top

"Y is typically the agent of the action expressed by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseagent
exampleteach/teacher

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept Y is typically the agent of the action expressed by concept X.

Examples

  • to teach involved_agent teacher

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_agent
PlWordNet Relation Name agent inclusion

Patient (patient)back to top

"X is the patient undergoing an action or event expressed by Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_patient
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: (A/an) X is the one/that who/which undergoes the Y.

Examples

  • learner patient to learn

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="patient"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_patient
PlWordNet Relation Name role_patient
Interlingual Index Node i69753

Involved Patient (involved_patient)back to top

"Y is typically the patient un-dergoing an action or event expressed by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversepatient
exampleteach/learner

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the patient undergoing an action or event expressed by concept A.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_patient"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_patient
PlWordNet Relation Name patient inclusion

Result (result)back to top

"X comes into existence as a result of Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_result
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: (A/an) X is comes into existence as a result of Y or, (A/an) X is the result of Y or, (A/an) X is created by Y.

Examples

  • crystal result to crystalize

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="result"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_result
PlWordNet Relation Name role_result
Interlingual Index Node i69759

Involved Result (involved_result)back to top

"Y comes into existence as a result of X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseresult
examplefreeze/ice

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept B comes into existence as a result of concept A.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_result"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_result
PlWordNet Relation Name result inclusion

Instrument (instrument)back to top

"X is the instrument necessary for the action or event expressed by Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_instrument
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: (A/an) X is either i) the instrument that or ii) what is used to Y (with)

Examples

  • hammer instrument to hammer
  • sail instrument to sail
  • pen instrument to write
  • ink instrument to write
  • paper instrument to write

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_instrument
PlWordNet Relation Name role_instrument
Interlingual Index Node i69756

Involved Instrument (involved_instrument)back to top

"Y is typically the instrument necessary for the action or event expressed by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinstrument
examplepaint/paint-brush

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the instrument necessary for the action or event expressed by concept A.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_instrument
PlWordNet Relation Name instrument inclusion

Location (location)back to top

"X is the location where the action or event expressed by Y takes place"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_location
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: A relation between two concepts where concept X is the location where the action or event expressed by concept Y takes place.

Examples

  • school location to teach

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="location"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_location
PlWordNet Relation Name role_location
Interlingual Index Node i35580

Involved Location (involved_location)back to top

"Y is typically the location where the action or event expressed by X takes place"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverselocation
exampleswim/water

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the location where the action or event expressed by concept A takes place.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

In plWordNet it is a relation between lexical units.

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_location"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_location
PlWordNet Relation Name location inclusion

Direction (direction)back to top

"X is typically the direction or location of the action or event expressed by Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_direction
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: A relation between two concepts where concept X is typically the direction or location of the action or event expressed by concept Y. It is possible to Y from/to/over/across/through a place (X)

Examples

  • place direction pass

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="direction"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_direction
Interlingual Index Node i82556

Involved Direction (involved_direction)back to top

"Y is typically the direction or location of the action or event expressed by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversedirection
example(no example given)

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept B is typically the direction or location of the action or event expressed by concept A.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_direction

Target Direction (target_direction)back to top

"X is the place to which the action or event expressed by Y leads"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_target_direction
example(no example given)

Definition

X Role Y: (a/an/the) X is the place to which Ying happens / one Ys

Examples

  • ground target_direction to collapse, to fall heavily

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="target_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_target_direction
Interlingual Index Node i82007

Involved Target Direction (involved_target_direction)back to top

"Y is the place where the action or event expressed by X leads to"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversetarget_direction
examplego back home/home

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept B is the place where the action or event expressed by concept A leads to.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_target_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_target_direction

Source Direction (source_direction)back to top

"X is the place from where the event expressed by Y begins"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseinvolved_source_direction
examplestart/race

Definition

X Role Y: A relation between two concepts where concept X is the place from where the action or event expressed by concept Y begins/starts/happens.

Examples

  • the start source_direction to race

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="source_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name role_source_direction
Interlingual Index Node i81759

Involved Source Direction (involved_source_direction)back to top

"Y is the place from where the action or event expressed by X begins/starts/happens"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reversesource_direction
exampledisembark/ship

Definition

Y involved X: A relation between two concepts where concept B is the place from where the action or event expressed by concept A begins/starts/happens.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="involved_source_direction"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name involved_source_direction

Co Role (co_role)back to top

"One concept undergoes an action in which the other concept is involved (bidirectional)"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_role
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X undergoes an action in which concept Y is involved (bidirectional).

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_role"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_role

Co Agent Patient (co_agent_patient)back to top

"Y is the patient undergoing an action carried out by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_patient_agent
examplenovel writer/poet

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is the patient undergoing an action carried out by concept X.

Y is the patient undergoing an action carried out by X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_agent_patient"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_agent_patient

Co Patient Agent (co_patient_agent)back to top

"Y undergoes an action carried out by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_agent_patient
examplepoet/novel writer

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y undergoes an action carried out by concept X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_patient_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_patient_agent

Co Agent Instrument (co_agent_instrument)back to top

"Y is the instrument used by X in a certain action"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_instrument_agent
example(no example given)

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is the instrument used by concept X in a certain action.

Y is the instrument used by X in a certain action

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_agent_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_agent_instrument

Co Instrument Agent (co_instrument_agent)back to top

"X is the instrument used by Y for a certain action"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_agent_instrument
exampleguitar/guitar player

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is the instrument used by concept Y for a certain action.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_instrument_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_instrument_agent

Co Agent Result (co_agent_result)back to top

"Y is the result of an action carried out by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_result_agent
examplepastry dough/bread dough

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is the result of an action carried out by concept X.

Y is the result of an action carried out by X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_agent_result"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_agent_result

Co Result Agent (co_result_agent)back to top

"X is the result of an action carried out by Y"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_agent_result
examplebread dough/pastry dough

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is the result of an action carried out by concept Y.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_result_agent"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_result_agent

Co Patient Instrument (co_patient_instrument)back to top

"X undergoes an action for which the instrument expressed by X is used"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_instrument_patient
exampleice/ice saw

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y undergoes an action for which the instrument expressed by concept X is used.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_patient_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_patient_instrument

Co Instrument Patient (co_instrument_patient)back to top

"Y undergoes an action for which the instrument expressed by X is used"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_patient_instrument
exampleice saw/ice

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y undergoes an action for which the instrument expressed by concept X is used.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_instrument_patient"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_instrument_patient

Co Result Instrument (co_result_instrument)back to top

"X is the result of an action for which the instrument expressed by Y is used"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_instrument_result
examplephotograph/camera

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept X is the result of an action for which the instrument expressed by concept Y is used.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_result_instrument"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_result_instrument

Co Instrument Result (co_instrument_result)back to top

"Y is the result of an action carried out by the instrument expressed by X"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • synset–synset
reverseco_result_instrument
examplecamera/photograph

Definition

A relation between two concepts where concept Y is the result of an action carried out by the instrument expressed by concept X.

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

<Synset id="wn-synset-X" ili="iXYZ" partOfSpeech="x">
  <SynsetRelation relType="co_instrument_result"
		  target="wn-synset-Y"/>
</Synset>

Project-specific Names

Euro WordNet Relation Name co_instrument_result

Participle (participle)back to top

"links from a participial adjective to a verb"
symbol(no symbol defined)
applicability
  • sense–sense
reverse(no reverse relation defined)
exampleinteresting is the participial adjective from interest

Definition

A relation where X is a participial adjective and Y is the verb it is derived from

Examples

(no more examples)

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

These are not linked in the NLTK interface so are not shown in OMW 1.0 (or as far as I can see, anywhere FCB)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="participle"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

(no project names defined)

Pertainym (pertainym)back to top

"X is of or pertaining to Y"
symbol
applicability
  • sense–sense
reverse(no reverse relation defined)
examplenaval has pertainym navy; slowly has pertainym slow

Definition

links a relational adjective X to the noun Y it is about, or an adverb X to the adjective it is about Y

Examples

lunar has pertainym moon naval has pertainym navy; slowly has pertainym slow English has pertainym England; English has pertainym English "language"

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="pertainym"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

(no project names defined)

Derivation (derivation)back to top

"X is a derivationally related form of Y"
symbol
applicability
  • sense–sense
reversederivation
exampleyearly is derivationally related to year

Definition

X is a derivationally related form of Y, this may be specialized
further. It includes zero derivations. Gnerally it is used for different syntactic categories that have the same root form and are semantically related. Wordnet does not say which is the baseform, the relationship is fully reversible.

Examples

yearly is derivationally related to year want n is derivationally related to want v wanter n is derivationally related to want v provision n is derivationally related to provide v

Tests

(no tests defined)

Comments

(no comments)

XML

In the XML format for Wordnet LMF the relation should be shown like this:

 
<Sense id="wn-sense-X" synset="wn-synset-X">
   <SenseRelation relType="derivation"
		  target="wn-sense-Y"/>
 </Sense>

Project-specific Names

(no project names defined)